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4 edition of The role of oligodendroglial cells in the CNS radiation response found in the catalog.

The role of oligodendroglial cells in the CNS radiation response

Shelley Lynn Atkinson

The role of oligodendroglial cells in the CNS radiation response

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Published by National Library of Canada in Ottawa .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (M.Sc.) -- University of Toronto, 2003.

SeriesCanadian theses = -- Thèses canadiennes
The Physical Object
FormatMicroform
Pagination2 microfiches : negative.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL20125764M
ISBN 100612782115
OCLC/WorldCa56329516

Importantly the expression of the catalytic subunit of the telomerase enzyme hTERT has been shown not to abrogate SIPS, demonstrating that cellular senescence can be triggered prematurely independently of telomere attrition [ 6869 ]. The spinal cord connects the brain to nerves in most parts of the body. Median OS 7. Brain Pathol 3 3 : Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Acta Neuropathol 4 :

Increased risk of stroke and haemorrhage Myelopathy of the spinal cord These late effects are thought to arise from a complex interaction of damage between neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and endothelial cells. Neurons Neurons are not as resistant to radiotherapy as previously thought. In summary, our findings revealed novel insights about differential responses between normal astrocytes and glioma cells. Excluded small completely resected pilocytic astrocytomasoptic nerve gliomasbrainstem gliomas, third ventricle gliomas, and infratentorial gliomas. Patients with these mutant tumors have significantly longer survival independent of WHO grade or histologic subtype.

Indeed a 'memory' for the number of completed population doublings was observed when WI fibroblasts were found to enter senescence with respect to their remaining replicative capacity, even after cryopreservation for a period of 23 years [ 44 ]. In line with the above-mentioned results we analyzed the DNA damage response in fibroblasts exposed to cosmic radiation during the Foton M3 space mission. Interestingly, the sub-nuclear organisation of chromosomes has also been shown to be different in senescent and proliferating mammalian somatic cells, whereby gene poor chromosomes such as chromosomes 13 and 18 are thought to alter their preferential nuclear position from near the nuclear periphery and relocate to the nuclear interior when induced to senesce. In some cases, a diffuse astrocytoma can be cured. In addition to myelinating oligodendrocytes, the mature brain contains a large number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells OPCsthat can be distinguised by specific markers they express.


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The role of oligodendroglial cells in the CNS radiation response by Shelley Lynn Atkinson Download PDF Ebook

They are somehow able to "turn on" the DNA damage response apparatus. Mammalian nervous systems depend crucially on myelin sheaths, which reduce ion leakage and decrease the capacitance of the cell membranefor rapid signal conduction.

This 'Hayflick Limit' was the first demonstration of a senescence phenotype and described the replicative capacity of diploid cells in culture before the cells ceased to divide [ 45 ] and has since been demonstrated for many different types of cells both in vitro and in vivo [ 4647 ].

The tumor cells look very different from normal cells. The pineal gland is a tiny organ in the brain that makes melatonina hormone that helps control the sleeping and waking cycle.

Radiation-resistant glioma cells and normal astrocytes usuallly share similar mechanisms of radioresistance. Phenotype The major phenotype of senescence that characteristically distinguishes senescence from quiescence is irreversible growth arrest that cannot be reversed by any known physiological stimuli, associated with resistance to apoptosis and increased sensitivity to cellular injury [ 20 — 26 ].

Mutant mice that express a senescence-defective CCN1 protein however show increased fibrosis at sites of wound repair [ 17 ]. PLoS One 6 3 : e, This is an artefact of histological processing and is replicated in tumors of oligodendroglial cells.

The immature oligodendrocytes, which increase in number during mid- gestationare more vulnerable to hypoxic injury and are involved in periventricular leukomalacia.

Oligodendrocyte

Excluded small completely resected pilocytic astrocytomasoptic nerve gliomasbrainstem gliomas, third ventricle gliomas, and infratentorial gliomas. Specifically, early passage cultures show 0. APA Dieriks, Birger. Pilocytic astrocytoma grade I : A pilocytic astrocytoma grows slowly in the brain or spinal cord.

Pathological Changes. Glioblastoma grade IV : A glioblastoma grows and spreads very quickly. In response to radiotherapy they become activated, more rounded, and begin proliferating.

This ultimately leads to the inhibition of cyclin-dependant kinases [ 78 ]. Although intially thought to be the sole cause of radiation induced late effects, there is evidence that the endothelial and vessel changes are part of the overall effect of radiation.

The group showed that oncogenic ras expression permanently arrested primary human and rodent cells in G1 and that the cells displayed features similar to those of replicative senescence, including the accumulation of p53 and p16 [ 65 ].

They rarely spread into nearby tissues. OPCs are generated in fetal life and postnatally; they do not make myelin but retain their undifferentiated stem cell status. Oligodendroglial cells are present in gray matter and in white matter.

Myelin is a sheath of plasma membrane wrapped around an axon. This type of mixed tumor is called an oligoastrocytoma.

Radiation Oncology/CNS/Low grade glioma

Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. J Cell Biol ; J Clin Oncol 27 25 : There The role of oligodendroglial cells in the CNS radiation response book different types of brain and spinal cord tumors.

The key mediator in this process, ATM, phosphorylates important sensors and effectors of the DDR including H2AX, 53BP1 [ 3175 — 77 ] and p53 leading to the up-regulation of cyclin-dependant kinase inhibitor p21, which in-turn acts to inhibit the action of CDK2 kinase activity arresting the cell cycle in G1 [ 76 ] Figure 1.Define oligodendroglial.

oligodendroglial synonyms, oligodendroglial pronunciation, oligodendroglial translation, English dictionary definition of oligodendroglial. n. Neuroglia consisting of oligodendrocytes. pl n a class of cells in the central nervous system which produce myelin Noun 1.

oligodendroglia - tissue. Find out information about Oligodendroglial cells. Glial cell responsible for elaborating myelin in the central nervous system Explanation of Oligodendroglial cells.

Simons, "Control of oligodendroglial cell number by the miR cluster," Development, vol. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of differential radiation response between normal astrocytes and glioma cells is thus significant for improvement of glioma treatment.

Here, we report on the differential radiation responses between normal astrocytes and glioma cells at the transcriptome 42comusa.com: Liang Gong, Jiacheng Gu, Jianwei Ge, Xiang Wu, Chao Zhang, Chun Yang, Weiji Weng, Guoyi Gao, Junfeng.Pdf studies mainly focused on neuronal development in DS, but underestimated the role of glial cells as pathogenic players.

Aberrant or impaired differentiation within the oligodendroglial lineage and altered white matter functionality are thought to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) 42comusa.com: Laura Reiche, Patrick Küry, Peter Göttle.The exact mechanisms by which radiation necrosis develops are likely due to complex interactions of endothelial cells, astrocytes and perhaps microglia and oligodendrocytes.

Radiation induced neurocognitive decline is likely due to radiation effects on neurons and astrocytes but other cells may have an undefined role.Find out information ebook Oligodendroglial cells. Glial cell responsible for elaborating myelin in the central nervous system Explanation of Oligodendroglial cells.

Simons, "Control of oligodendroglial cell number by the miR cluster," Development, vol.